Suggestions for your paper

October 4, 2009

Yui,

Very good. I’d like you to go thru and expand any paragraph that is too short. Also, please look at the related posts for things to add to your paper.

Also, you need to think about the order of your sections. I think that you want to start with the origin of Christmas, then Christmas and the Church, they the social aspects of Christmas and then Christmas in Japan. Then your conclusion, which should explain the relationship of Christmas in the West to Christmas in Japan.

German Christmas

October 1, 2009

Many people celebrate the Christmas on their way. These ways like how to celebrate and how to spend are so unique and fun for us because we don’t experience them. German Christmas is so interesting for me. Have you ever met Black Santa Claus? Everyone knows Santa Claus who wears a red coat and pants, a white mustache; however Black Santa Claus dress up Black clothes from head to foot. The Grand Christmas Market stand in a row from November in Berlin and Munich, Frankfurt. The locals and tourists from all over the world visit these city and these are so busy from November. However, a fear legend which completely different from such image of gorgeous Christmas is in Germany. In Germany, Santa Claus who wears red clothes comes to Children’s house that children often help their mother and cleans their room too, but if Black Santa Claus come to Children’s house that children doesn’t help their mothers job and are unkind to their friends. Black Santa Claus is called クネヒトルプレヒト and his characteristics are wearing black clothes, has the whip that bundles the twig. Red and Black Santa Claus is acting together in Germany depending on the provinces. The present is given to a good child, and punishment comes for a bad child.

Mother tells children who doesn’t help that Black Santa Claus come to the house.

A mysterious present such as the rubbish of the charcoal glass and the tree is put on child’s bedside because children don’t hear it no matter how it is noted a lots. This seems to be good one. For worst children, it seems to be put cow and pig’s internal organs on children’s bed. However, Black Santa Claus seem to pack really bad children into an empty bag and get away them. Afterwards, the taken bad child is not trained in the Black Santa Claus. Black Santa Claus throws them out to the river of the midwinter and drops them. Many people think why Black Santa Claus exists in Germany.  Existence of Black Santa Claus is deep relations with church.

In existence of black Father Christmas in Germany, there is deep relations with the church. Santa Claus understands that it is bad to intimidate young children, but this legend seems to be effect preeminence for children whom a habit was distracted with. クランプス whose looks is more horrible is in Austria. クランプス resembles Namahage of Akita. クランプス hold the branch of the tree in a hand like クネヒトルプレヒト, too, And it is said that クランプス does punishment of bad children. It seems that ピート is the same as Black Santa Claus, but ピート is attendants on Santa Claus in Netherland. Because the face of ピート is black, it is apt to seem that it is punishment corps. However, ピート’s role is going into the house from a chimney in place of Santa Claus, so their face is so black. Dutch Santa Claus doesn’t carry presents by myself.

References

October 1, 2009

I don’t write Conclusion yet…

now, I research about What is a Japanese Christmas.
Reference:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prince_Edward,_Duke_of_Kent_and_Strathearn

http://homepage2.nifty.com/tori-hide/xmasday19.htm

Pradise Yamamoto. (2007) Santa Claus Koshiki Book –Christmas no tadashii sugoshikata (Santa Claus Official Book –how to spend Christmas). Kabushiki gaisya Syougakkan: Tokyo

http://www.historic-uk.com/

Moehumisyorin hensyubu(萌文書林). (In 1998) Kodomo ni tsutaetai Nenchugyogi, Kinenbi( Annual event and anniversary which we want to tell children). Moehumisyorin:

http://www.cream-dreams.com/cd_tanteidan/index.html

(http://www.narinari.com/Nd/2004123831.html),

Christmas in Japan

October 1, 2009

In 1551, Francisco Xavier made Christianity’s missions in Yamaguchi; it is lead for Japanese Christmas. Missionary Cosme de Torres, a Spanish Jesuit of sixteenth century, was one of the Jesuits who started the Christian missions in Japan was born in Valencia and died in Amakusa, island of Kumamoto, Japan. He invited some Japanese believers to priest’s house in Yamaguchi on December 24, 1552 and Missionaries sang hymns.  At the point, some Japanese believers saw what they celebrate Christmas at the first time. It is the beginning of Japanese Christmas. But, after that, due to Shogunate suppressed thoroughly in the Edo period, Christmas wasn’t accepted by the beginning of Meiji.

In 1890, Meijiya is one of the Japanese famous store opened in Ginza, it connect the Christmas sales battle.

In 1925, Christmas stamps were sold in Japan at the first time. The beginning of Showa, some coffee shops and café which lead to Asakusa from Ginza prepared a menu of Christmas food and these clerks with Christmas clothes welcomed customers. Miyako paper on December 12, 1931 reported this show; Santa Claus was bound up in visiting about 7400 café and 2500 coffee shops. Christmas is one of the Japanese annual at that time for people. At the present day, 64% of newly married couple sweared eternal love in front of crosses. Commerce facilities decorates illumination from the beginning of November, has a Christmas sale. Christmas songs are being played there and Christmas cakes were sold at cake shops. In United Kingdom, it has Boxing Day which people give managers and delivers some presents on December 26, so British Christmas time is by January 6. However, many stores is showing New Year’s goods like Kadomatsu after December 25 and BGM will change to New Year’s song. In recent years, illuminations are decorated as it is by midnight of December 31 because Countdown Event is brisk.

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Christmas as an American holiday

October 1, 2009

Christmas as an American holiday

The three major holidays that Americans celebrate are Christmas, Thanksgiving, and New Year’s Day and of these three, the most important is Christmas. However, you may be surprised to know that some of the first immigrants to America did not celebrate Christmas at all. This is because they were Puritans, (xxxx), and they thought that the Christmas feast was too wasteful and decadent. (Kashiwara, 1999). However, other immigrants brought their ideas of Christmas as a special holiday, and they have combined to create our idea of an American Christmas.

 Christmas started in the middle Ages in Europe, and was spread to the United States by the immigrant. However, the Puritan who had come to New England in the 17th century assumed that the feast caused degeneration, and was forbidding Christmas.

However, Christmas has spread to American whole land as the number of immigrants from Europe increases. It is the more maximum event in one year than the Thanksgiving of now. There are small numbers of people who do not celebrate on religious grounds. If the Thanksgiving in November ends, the decoration of the show window in the town becomes one Christmas color. Christmas is the celebrating at home, and the shop closes and becomes unfrequented. These are definitely different from Japan.

Victorian Christmas

October 1, 2009

・Victorian Christmas

Albert duke from Germany who is a husband of Queen Victoria introduced customs of the Christmas tree in U.K. at the first time. In 1840, Queen Victoria and Albert duke brought a Christmas tree into Windsor Castle to cerebrate first Christmas after they marriage. Queen Victoria was born in 1819 and her father is The Prince Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent and Strathearn was a member of the British Royal Family, the fourth son of King George Ⅲ. Her mother is Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, the daughter of Duke Franz Friedrich of Saxe-Coburg-Asslfeld. Victoria became Queen at only 18 years old on Jun20, 1837. The British nation welcomed Queen Victoria enthusiastically as the same time as her became Queen. Many people thought that the kingdom whole families were scandalous before Queen Victoria succeeded to the throne, but they felt majestic dignity in her seriousness. The Queen married Albert duke in enthronement the third year. British people often regard this Royall Couple (The Queen Victoria and Albert duke) as ideal couple. The couple has 9 children and they often enjoyed in the Baru Morand Castle, it is the annual function for their family. In December, 1848, the “illustration lei Ted London news” paper introduced a cut of the Christmas scenery of the Royal Family. The people will know a custom to decorate a tree for the first time. At first, the people of the upper class of the Royal Family imitate this, but infiltrated into the nation widely in 1960-70. 1860’s Christmas of Royal Family is Last Christmas which spend whit Albert duke and it was so beautiful and gorgeous Christmas. In 3 room of the private use of the Queen, Several Christmas trees were hung from the ceiling of the trace that a chandelier was removed and innumerable lights shined to the every corner of the room. Candies and candles as I cannot count it colored some trees and small trees on the desk. And it was placed some presents which the Royal Family gave each other all over the room. Because all the members gave each other it, one had to prepare for 13 presents.

But when did the traditions of Christmas begin? Many of the traditions that we associate with Christmas began in the Victorian era (historic-uk.com, )According to HISTORIC-UK.com (http://www.historic-uk.com/), “No era in history, however, has influenced the way in which we celebrate Christmas, quite as much as the Victorians. Before Victoria’s reign started in 1837 nobody in Britain had heard of Santa Claus or Christmas Crackers. No Christmas cards were sent and most people did not have holidays from work. The wealth and technologies generated by industrial revolution of the Victorian era changed the face of Christmas forever. Sentimental do-gooders like Charles Duckens wrote books like “Christmas Carol”, published in 1843, which actually encouraged rich Victorians to redistribute their wealth by giving money and gifts to the poor-Humbug! These radical middle class ideals eventually spread to the not-quite-so-poor as well.”

It is natural to celebrate Christmas with your family and your friends now. However, there was an age when it had been prohibited to celebrate Christmas in the past. There was time that was not able to celebrate Christmas even in Europe and the United States from about the middle of the 17th century to beginning of the 18th century. It was the prohibitions of all doing of the decoration of Christmas tree and eating Christmas dinner. It became as the present of Christmas when Christmas revived again in the 19th century.

 Is this reference too long??

“No era in history, however, has influenced the way in which we celebrate Christmas, quite as much as the Victorians. Before Victoria’s reign started in 1837 nobody in Britain had heard of Santa Claus or Christmas Crackers. No Christmas cards were sent and most people did not have holidays from work. The wealth and technologies generated by industrial revolution of the Victorian era changed the face of Christmas forever. Sentimental do-gooders like Charles Duckens wrote books like “Christmas Carol”, published in 1843, which actually encouraged rich Victorians to redistribute their wealth by giving money and gifts to the poor-Humbug! These radical middle class ideals eventually spread to the not-quite-so-poor as well.”

Christmas as a Western holiday

October 1, 2009

Christmas is the annual Christian festival celebrating Christ’s birth, held on 25th December. The surface of Christmas is ‘Celebrating that God was born as a human’. People cerebrates Christmas Eve is from the evening of December 24 to first light, because the boundary of day is sunset on Jewry’s calendar. Muslim is also celebrate it as the birth of main prognosticator イーサ According to the New Testament, the detailed article of Christ’s birth isn’t appear at all, but there are some theories about it. As for Christianity, Christmas is a holiday that commemorates Advent and it is not position as Christ’s birthday. Christmas festival started in Western Christianity at the latest 345 years ago. People suppose it was developed ミトラ教の冬至の祭 for Christmas. In 345, people decided that date of Easter and the Nativity (Christmas) is on December 25 on Council of Nicaea. It was written, “The Christ was born in Bethlehem of Judea on December 25” in Philocalian calendar that recorded the event of oldest record Rome concerning Christmas. It was the oldest record concerning Christmas. According to americangreeting.com; It is arguably every child’s favorite holiday. And probably some adults, too. (C’mon – you can admit it). With fluffy snow, cheery passers-by, merry music, scrumptious cookies, and twinkling lights on nearly every house on the block, how could it not be? Who can resist the smell of wrapping paper mixed with freshly chopped pine tree? Who can contain their excitement about the wonderful surprises (both given and received) under the tree on Christmas morning? Christmas is about giving and sharing, about loving and caring. (And it’s the one time of year where it’s perfectly acceptable for adults to jitter with giddiness over cookies, egg nog, department store sales, presents and snowball-throwing.) Seriously though, Christmas is such a happy time that it’s downright in spiring.

I rewrite these sentences.

According to americangreeting.com; It is arguably every child’s favorite holiday. And probably some adults, too. (C’mon – you can admit it). With fluffy snow, cheery passers-by, merry music, scrumptious cookies, and twinkling lights on nearly every house on the block, how could it not be? Who can resist the smell of wrapping paper mixed with freshly chopped pine tree? Who can contain their excitement about the wonderful surprises (both given and received) under the tree on Christmas morning? Christmas is about giving and sharing, about loving and caring. (And it’s the one time of year where it’s perfectly acceptable for adults to jitter with giddiness over cookies, egg nog, department store sales, presents and snowball-throwing.) Seriously though, Christmas is such a happy time that it’s downright in spiring.

American Chistmas and Japanese Chirstmas

October 1, 2009

Another area where we can see differences between the American and the Japanese celebration of Christmas is in the Christmas meal. The traditional feast for Japanese people is during New Year’s, where families gather to eat osechi, zoni, mochi. New Year’s is when Japanese families gather, so their holiday feast occurs at this time. However, in America, there are some difference between Japan and American Christmas meal. An investigation conducted in 19xx into the idea of the Christmas meal, comparing American and Japanese ideas about the holiday meal (Japan-guide.com, 19??) conducted an investigation into a meal of Christmas to about 1,000 Japanese people. The result was as follows. 70% of Japanese people eat Christmas cake, and 30% eat chicken. On the other hand, it was only 4% that ate the turkey of American traditional Christmas menu.

One possible reason for this difference is the time when Christmas was introduced to Japan. It was only in the 1950’s, after World War 2 that Japanese, influenced by American culture, began to eat Christmas cake. The Western-style cake industry became more active than before, taking advantage of sugar and wheat flour having been lifted the ban. It was such times when postwar food shortage continued, and there were not materials to make a cake till then. The Western-style cake industry made shortcake and Mont Blanc, a cream puff when I got possible to secure the materials which were necessary for the making of cake. And a cake infiltrated general people before long. It is said that it is Fujiya to have created Christmas decoration cakes first. When we think about the history of the Japanese cake, Fujiya is an indispensable company. The power of television transmission started in 1953 also influences it. It spread Christmas cake in Japan to have broadcasted the picture which ate Christmas cake on TV. It is the start of eating cake on Christmas day in Japan.

This is a custom that is actually a Japanese addition to Christmas rather than an importation of a U.S. tradition. In the US, the typical Christmas food is a roasted turkey, a dish that is related to British holiday customs imported to America (Tsai, 19xx) Many people eat a turkey instead. Why American people eat turkey on Christmas Day? “Eating turkey was also in keeping with British holiday customs that had been imported to the New World.” Most British families now eat turkey on Christmas Day, but the traditional festive meal is goose. Turkey was introduced from the Americas in the 16th century but did not become the standard Christmas dish until well into the 20th, when the bird proved particularly amenable to new intensive farming techniques.

Origin of Christmas

October 1, 2009

Origin of Christmas

The strongest image Japanese have of Christmas is presents and cards, the decorations of the tree, but these are only a small part of Christmas and Christmas is a holiday which is celebrated differently in different countries. What Japanese think of as Christmas is actually a mixture of many of these different traditions from different countries. In the following, I will attempt to identify some of the Christmas customs of foreign countries that have become the customs of Japanese Christmas.

A 2008 International Survey by the Nikke Shinbun given to 9,200 people showed some differences in budgeting for Christmas. U.K. was the highest on a present budget in that, the present average budget was 541 pounds (about 10,800 yen). The second place was U.S.A. and it’s an average of 948 dollars (9,900yen). The American people use a little less than 100,000 yen for a Christmas present, too. Japan was last with an average of 10,700 yen in 15 countries. So, even though a large part of the Japanese image of Christmas is the exchange of presents, Japanese don’t make this as large a part of the holiday as British and Americans do. This suggests that the main source of Christmas images and ideas are these two English speaking countries. So, while we can identify many different parts of Christmas that have come from other countries, all of these parts may have been put together in American and Britain before being taken on by the Japanese.

Introduction

October 1, 2009

Introduction

In Japan, many people enjoy celebrating Christmas day. Christmas is one of the big yearly events in Japan, where.people give and receive presents and often eat Christmas cake with their family and their friends. This happens even though  Christmas is a Western holiday, so what parts of Christmas are celebrated in Japan and why? What parts of the Christmas celebration are unique to Japan and how did they begin? What is the relationship between the history of Christmas and the celebration of Japanese Christmas. In this paper, I will discuss the history of Christmas and the celebration of Christmas in Japan and show the different aspects of Christmas that are now part of that celebration in Japan. The parts of Christmas that have been borrowed from the West and the parts of Christmas that have been invented in Japan help us understand the relationship between Japan and the West. After discussing these points, I will try to show that even though Christmas is an international holiday, the Japanese have made Christmas something that is unique from other countries.